Voluntarily Put $ In Pot % or VPIP
This percentage generally shows us how tight or loose someone is playing pre-flop. It’s a good tool for estimating a player’s range of hands. The higher an opponent’s VPIP number is at low stakes, the more hands they play, and the worse they usually are. The following stats have been weighted for 8-player Sit-n-Gos, as well as weighted for the players who make final 2 and heads up:
- Less Than 15% are very tight players in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. Players with this style are generally playing only premium hands preflop. Look at these players’ PFR % to determine how aggressive or passive their style of play is. A low FPR% indicate a tight but passive style of play, which is easily exploited, especially out of position. Be careful against players who have a high PFR%. If players have a high PFR%, check the C-bet%, as they may become a little exploitable if they continuation bet too often(btw 95%-100%), turning hands like AK into bluffs on the flop and turn after they miss.
- 16% – 25% are still generally tight players in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. They will usually open from early and middle position with broadway hands (KJ, KQ, AT, etc). Make notes on whether they play Pocket Pairs from early position, or whether they raise or limp with them. They will also tend to have a much wider range in late position, making their c-bets potentially more dangerous. A common mistake with these players is that they are extreme in their opening betting style, either limping too much or raising too often with broadway hands and small pocket pairs. Check their 3-Bet% and PFR% to determine how aggressive they are with many of their low pocket pairs and broadway hands.
- 26% – 35% are generally semi-loose players in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. They’ll usually open all Pocket Pairs and strong non-pair hands, like suited broadways and strong aces, from early position. They will have a wide hand range from late position also. These players become easily exploitable if they have a low PFR%. Pay attention at how often they open from early position, as this will often be a weakness of this type player. If these type players open mostly in late position with a high PFR%, look at the C-bet% to determine how aggressive they are post flop.
- 36% – 50% is considerably loose in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. These players are usually playing far too many hands in all positions and should be easy to exploit if you patiently wait for premium hands and great situations. Any player who plays close to 50% of the hands dealt is invariably playing a lot of garbage hands like T7, 23, k8s, Q7, 96, etc. It’s important to determine if they are calling stations by looking at their PFR%. If these players have a low PFR% and a low AF%, then they are generally calling stations and will give away their chips over time. Exploit this player by waiting on good hands in position, and punish their calls with value raises. Beware of trying to bluff calling stations.
- 51% – 70% is maniac loose in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. They are playing all sorts of trash from every possible position. These are the type of players you really want at your table. Because these players play so many weird combinations of hands, tighter players have to be very careful to employ pot control and to not lose huge pots against them with just one pair. These players become maniac if they also have a high PRF%, AF%, and C-bet%. These are the type players that are easy to trap and slow play against, allowing them to hand themselves.
- Greater Than 71% is FREE money in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours.
Pre-flop Raise % or PFR
This is the percentage of hands your opponent is raising pre-flop. It must always be less or equal their VPIP and should be analyzed in context with their VPIP. A 60/18 is not that aggressive, while a 20/18 is an extremely aggressive player. Again you need a minimum sample size of at least 50 hands to have any confidence in this stat.
- If PFR is very small (Less Than 10% of VPIP) then you don’t need to worry about getting raised off marginal hands. If they do raise you can fold nearly all speculative hands unless you have the implied odds to call and stack them with a pocket pair for example, the deeper you’re playing the wider the range of hands you can call with.
- If PFR is between 11% – 25% of VPIP is very passive, the comfort level of amateurs.
- If PFR is between 26% – 49% of VPIP is passive preflop, signaling that they are playing a lot of marginal hands out of position.
- (Special Note:If PFR is Less Than 1/2 of VPIP, then this player is quite passive pre-flop and limping over 50% of hands they play. This is the standard amateur approach to poker, as they like to play lots of suited cards and suited connectors and broadway cards. These players often understand that these are weak hands, but they are playing poker in the hopes of gambling and getting lucky on the flop. This gambling mentality makes it harder for them to fold 86, so they call preflop, out of position, hoping no one raises.)
- If PFR is between 50% – 75% of VPIP then they’re raising more than they’re limping, but they’re not overly aggressive.
- If PFR is between 75% – 85% of VPIP is raising the majority of their hands and they’re playing aggressively pre-flop.
- If PFR is Greater Than 86% of VPIP, the player tends to be very straight forward, often either too tight or too aggressive.
(To make our stats easier to interpret, we will automatically interpret the PRF percentage in relationship to the VPIP)
Aggression Factor or AF
This is an indicator of post-flop aggression. It is calculated by the following formula (raise% + bet%)/(call%) post-flop. It’s the ratio of times a player is aggressive against the times they’re passive. You need at least 100 – 200 sample size of hands to be sure of this stat but more hands for tighter players.
It’s essential to look at this in the context of VPIP and other statistics to interpret what it means. One of the limitations of Aggression Factor is that it doesn’t include fold %, so two players with the same AF could have very different ranges they raise.
A weak-tight nit with a VPIP of 12% is going to make much stronger hands on average and fold his marginal hands more often than a maniac with a VPIP of 65% who bets and raises with random hands.
The weak-tight nit will have a high AF because he often folds unless he has the nuts so a raise from him will often mean a strong hand. The maniac, on the other hand, might have the same AF but since he’s playing more hands pre-flop and folding fewer hands post-flop and his range for raising will be far larger.
It’s important to be able to tell what type of player you’re playing against. Take note of the type of hands they go to showdown with. A maniac will lose a lot of hands at showdown while the nit will go to showdown infrequently, usually very strong holdings. Using AF with WtSD will give you a better idea what type of player you’re up against. Looking at how they react to C-bets can also be a useful indicator.
Rough Guidelines For Aggression Factor or AF
- Less Than 1.00 is very passive in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. These players are calling a lot and betting/raising very little. A raise from these players usually means a strong hand. You can value bet lighter against these opponents because they tend to call with wide ranges.
- 1.1 – 3.0 is about average in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. These players aren’t overly aggressive post-flop but it’s important to look at it in the context of their VPIP and other stats.
- 3.1 – 4.5 is aggressive in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. Be prepared to assign a wider range to bets and raises with these type players.
- Greater Than 4.6 is very aggressive, almost maniac behavior in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. These players prefer to bet or raise rather than call and may do so lightly. Against these type players, it may be profitable to slow play and induce bluffs. As mentioned, in some cases a high AF can be an indication of a high fold%, so don’t automatically assume that they’re raising lightly.
Continuation Bet Percentage
The C-bet% tells us how often a player bets or raises the flop after raising the pot pre-flop. At micro levels, players should be C-betting pretty often. However, at mid stakes poker, this would be akin to burning money. Pay very close attention to a player’s PFR%, as a player with a very low PFR most likely has a big hand when he C-bets and should be given credit. A player with a high PFR% and high Cbet% will have a much wider range when they C-bet, including lots of flop bluffs.
- Greater Than 85% is super aggressive in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. This player is continuation betting almost always and is unlikely to be paying attention to the number of opponents or the flop texture. You can raise and call them lighter. These players are also prime candidates for floating unless, of course, they are prone to firing multiple barrels. If they do fire 2nd barrels often then you can be more inclined to slowplay monsters or call down lightly against them when trying to induce bluffs.
- 65% – 84%, is average in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. This player is probably playing optimally at small stakes and is going to be much harder to exploit.
- 45% – 64%, is passive in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. This player is likely to bet only when they hit the flop with strong straight or flush draws, top pairs, or over pairs. These players are easily exploited when they miss the flop, or when they miss their draw on the turn.
- Less Than 44% is extremely passive in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. This player doesn’t C-bet often enough. We can see more flops with them and take the pot away when they check. However, they should be given more credit when they do C-bet. As the C-bet with a low frequency, once they start betting, it’s generally because they’ve connected reasonably well with the flop. These players often play timid poker, prone to becoming calling stations post-flop.
Fold to C-bet %
This is the most critical stat of all C-bet% stats. It’s important to know how likely your C-bet is to be successful and who you should C-bet against.
This is a rough guideline for Fold to C-bet percentages:
- Less Than 49% is not a good percentage in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. C-betting against them is often just burning money, as they are calling stations and chase too lightly. Value bet them relentlessly, but don’t bother C-betting with air on boards likely to have hit their range. C-betting on dry boards heads-up can sometimes be ok as a strategy with premium hands. This is because they are floating lots of flops with weak hands.
- 50% – 75%, is average in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. They’re probably not huge calling stations but may play back or chase with marginal hands or draws.
- 76% – 84%, is a tight player in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. They are likely only putting money in the pot with reasonable hands and probably aren’t chasing too lightly.
- Greater Than 85%, is too tight in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. This means they are calling a lot of pre-flop raises and folding on the flop, so they are only playing poker to hit the two cards in their hands. You should nearly always be C-bet against in heads- up pots, as they need a good hand to continue and usually won’t have it.
This is the percentage of times a player 3-bets (re-raised a raiser) when they had the opportunity. This includes all 3-bets, not just those where this player made the original bet. Formula: (Total Times player 3-bet/Total 3-bet opportunities) *100.
- Less Than 4% is very tight in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. It signals that the player only 3-bets with premium hands, such as AA, KK, QQ, or AK. Their hand range becomes polarized. More experienced players can exploit this because the hand range has become so polarized after the 3-bet, it can be played face up.
- 5%-10% is average in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. These players 3-bet with a wider selection of hands, making it difficult to determine when they have a premium hand.
- 11-20% is very aggressive in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. These players are 3-betting extremely light with very marginal hands. These players can be 4-bet comfortably.
- Greater Than 21% is insane in 6-handed and 8-handed tournaments like ours. These player are playing way too reckless to be profitable.
This is how often your opponent goes to showdown after seeing the flop. Most players fall between 20% and 32%. Having a low WTSD can mean two things: He either folds very often before showdown or he makes his opponents fold very often before showdown. A good way to tell is by using WTSD in conjunction with AF%. If your opponent is passive and doesn’t go to showdown often, then he’s weak tight.
If your opponent is aggressive and has a low WTSD, he’s making people fold before showdown very often. If your opponent shows down 35% or more, he’s showdown happy. Again, you have to examine WTSD and his aggression stat to get an idea of how he plays. If his aggression is low he may not be betting with the lead often enough and intuitively lets his opponents showdown much more than they should. If, however, he is aggressive yet still has a high WTSD, he probably also calls way too often with weak hands on the river.
Seeing a number and knowing how often a player goes to showdown is helpful but seeing a number and figuring out why he goes to showdown as often as he does is invaluable. For this reason, there is no optimal percentage to display.